Based on the outcomes of the TNA, a large-scale project has been launched to support the Government of Zambia’s renewable energy feed-in tariff (REFIT) policy. With funding from the Green Climate Find, it will provide technical assistance, support local financial institutions and build the capacity for rural electrification. The project has a lifespan of 23 years, and it is anticipated that emissions of 4,000,000 tCO2e will be avoided.

Zambia is a large and landlocked country located in the centre of southern Africa. Agriculture is the backbone of Zambia’s economy, with approximately 70% of the population engaged in agricultural livelihoods, nearly all being subsistence farmers. Highly variable rainfall patterns and occasional floods and droughts make these livelihoods extremely vulnerable to climate change. Currently approximately 48,000,000 ha of land in Zambia is suitable for agriculture. Unless action is taken, the area suitable for growing staple crops is likely to decline by 80% by 2100. This would directly affect small-scale farmers in Zambia, most of whom rely on rain-fed systems.

Zambia completed its TNA in 2013. The TNA highlighted three technologies in the water sector. The Technology Action Plan proposes to establish a Pilot Project on Climate Change and Water Access. This project aims to install fifteen small dams, two hundred boreholes and tube wells and 10,000 wells. These measures are intended to safeguard Zambians who are affected by drought, seasonal floods and a lack of access to clean water, and they will provide a better access to water for both consumption and agriculture.

Energy generation in Zambia relies almost entirely on hydro-power (nearly 90% of total capacity). Facing serious electricity supply deficits from recent droughts, the TNA has led to a framework proposal being issued by the Zambian government. This will promote small-scale, renewable and decentralized energy projects to fast-track the country’s electrification efforts with a diversified mix. Apart from working as an adaptation measure, together the development of small-scale renewables and rural electrification have the potential to reduce the population’s dependence on charcoal and firewood, thereby reducing emissions from land use, one of the major sources of carbon emissions in Zambia.

The outcomes from the TNA have contributed to the development of the NDC by being used to determine the NDC’s objectives.

Zambia’s TNA contributes to the following Sustainable Development Goals:

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Priority technologies for adaption

  • Agriculture and food security
    • Conservation farming
    • Mixed farming
    • Crop diversification and new varieties
  • Water
    • Rainwater collection from ground surfaces, small reservoirs and micro-catchments
    • Boreholes and tubewells to supply domestic water during droughts
    • Improving the resilience of protected wells to flooding

Priority technologies for mitigation

  • Energy sector
    • Electricity generation-biomass combustion, geothermal, wind energy, biomethanation and photovoltaic utility
    • Biofuels: biodiesel from jatropha, and bioethanol from sugar cane, sweet sorghum and maize
    • Energy efficiency: energy management systems, industrial and commercial end-use efficiency, and household end-use efficiency
    • Improved cooking devices: improved charcoal stoves, improved firewood stoves and biogas for cooking
    • Improved charcoal production-brick kilns, traditional improved kilns and metal kilns
    • Off-grid systems: mini-hydro, biomass gasifiers, biogas digesters
  • Agriculture, land-use change and forestry
    • Conservation agriculture