Lesotho started its TNA process in 2020 as part of the TNA IV project, and has prioritised the Agriculture and Water sectors adaptation, and Energy, and Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) for mitigation.

Lesotho is an enclaved country wholly situated within the borders of South Africa, with over 80% of its population residing in rural areas.

Lesotho is expected to experience a change in precipitation patterns and temperatures, producing dryer and hotter conditions. In addition, it is expected that the intensity and frequency of extreme events such as floods and drought will increase, especially in the western and northern lowlands. Such conditions will negatively affect the water sector, with increased losses from evaporation and decreased groundwater recharge and run-off. The agricultural sector is also expected to be highly impacted by climate change, with a decline in agricultural production resulting in food shortages and a lower quality of livestock and its related products.

The country’s NDC mentions both unconditional and conditional targets of 10% and 35% respectively in reducing GHG emissions by 2030 compared to the business as usual scenario . To reach these targets, the country is focusing on energy efficiency and demand management, coupled with increasing investments in a renewable energy programme for the electricity, construction and waste sectors.

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Prioritized sectors for adaptation

  • Agriculture
  • Water

Prioritized sectors for mitigation:

  • Energy
  • Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU)